Pataphysics (Alfred Jarry)

Pataphysics is defined by its inventor, Alfred Jarry, as "the science of imaginary solutions, which symbolically attributes the properties of objects, described by their virtuality, to their lineaments".  First mentioned in 1893 in Jarry's play Guignol, it has proved to be a lasting source of inspiration to artists, writers (such as the Oulipo group), and thinkers (e.g. Jean Baudrillard).

O-ism (Jim Shaw)

"Born in the Finger Lakes region of upstate New York in the mid-1800s, O-ism's beliefs included the notion of a female deity, of time going backwards, of spiritual transience, and a prohibition on figurative art."
--Jim Shaw

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